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只要是上乘的鮪魚,光是看就想買下來並將其做成握壽司……
「数寄屋橋次郎」的小野二郎將其稱為壽司店之「職人根性」。
這與「價格高低」無關,而是當腦海裡浮現出喜歡鮪魚之客人臉孔之時,心中想著「想讓他品嘗這個部位的握壽司啊」。
能夠使壽司職人如此著迷的壽司食材之王「黑鮪魚」到底是一種怎樣的食材呢?這次我們將其有關基本信息作出了整理,以供大家瞭解。

捕獲黑鮪魚之方法

單鉤釣魚法:這是一種使用魚線、魚鉤以及魚餌(秋刀魚、鯖魚、魷魚等)進行釣魚的極簡單釣魚方法。可以說是透過魚線,漁夫跟鮪魚的一場一對一對戰。
延縄捕魚法:這是一種在一根繩索上將針和魚餌等距離地固定在支線上,然後將其扔進海里,在經過一段時間後再進行收網的釣魚方法。繩索的長度大約為100公里。只需扔一次繩索便能捕獲數次鮪魚。
定置網捕法:這是一種利用鮪魚沿著海流遷徙這一特性進行捕魚的方法。預先在沿岸附近鮪魚遷徙的路線裡設置繩索,然後等待遷徙經過的鮪魚上鉤。
圍網法:這是使用巨大的漁網一次性收穫鮪魚群的捕魚方法。鳥取的堺港和宮城的鹽釜等地方便是使用此方法。
高級壽司店更喜歡使用定置網捕魚法(連日本最好的鮪魚經銷商「Yama幸」的社長也是最推薦定置網捕魚法),和單鉤釣魚法。
定置網捕魚法並不是一種捕獵鮪魚的方法,而是在遷徙路線裡通過設置漁網等待鮪魚上鉤,因此被譽為是最不會傷害魚身的一種方法。
鮪魚壽司職人說道「通過定置網捕魚法捕獲的鮪魚口感很好。比起其他的捕魚方法,鮪魚的味道更佳濃厚以及酸味更重,有著單純地美味。不過鮪魚非常容易變色,因此要注意熟成的時機。」
雖然單鉤釣魚法是大間的一種傳統捕魚方法(大間裡提供的油炸鮪魚,其中70%的鮪魚都是通過單鉤釣魚法捕獲的),不過偶爾因為與漁夫進行1小時以上的拉扯而造成鮪魚體溫上升的情況,為了避免身體造成惡劣影響需要對其迅速採取適當措施,可是能夠迅速採取適當措施的漁夫不多,因此其質量會因“誰釣到了魚”而產生很大地不同。
順便一提,使用延繩捕法捕獲的鮪魚雖然外觀看起來很有光澤,不過吃過的人都說品嘗起來味道很清淡。另一方面,其優點是能夠長時間地使魚身保持光澤。

黑鮪魚的部位

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支撐著魚身的中骨以上稱之為「背部」,中骨以下稱之為「腹部」。
此外,從魚鰓到背鰭的部分稱之為「大」、中間部分稱之為「中」、接近尾部的稱之為「小」。
我們所謂的鮪魚脂是腹部的一部分,其中最有價值的是「大脂」。
相反,被稱為赤身的是背部的一部分,其中「中背段」為最高品質。
此外,據說鮪魚的體積較大,需要長時間運輸,因此鮪魚的「上身」比「下身」更上乘。
這裡說的下身跟上身是指根據放置鮪魚的狀態。
因為放置在地面的下身承載著魚身的重量,因此會造成「魚身裂開(身體破裂)」等使鮮度下降的情況。
雖然上身是否比下身更加上乘似乎有存在個體差異的情況,不過上身之所以更加上乘,確實因為其有著被稱為鮪魚最高級部位的「大脂」跟「中背段」。
(大脂裡最靠近頭部的部分是被稱為「中脂之最」的超高級部位)
在某些壽司店,職人在為客人提供壽司的時候會加上一句「今天的赤身是產自大間的喔」。
雖然這樣說本身並沒有任何問題,不過即使都是「大間產」的鮪魚,也會因部位的不同而造成價格的差異。
換句話說,顧客可以根據觀察壽司店使用「大間產」鮪魚的哪種部位,而確定這家壽司店的「等級」。
對於壽司職人來說,要想賣出當天收購而來的最上乘「大脂」,除了擁有技術之外,還需要足夠的資金以支撐不斷收購鮪魚的需求。
據說有些職人為了從有權威的經銷商處購買到心心想念的「大脂」就足足花了10年的時間。

決定鮪魚質量的要素-①顏色

這裡不僅是指使用菜刀切開之後的橫截面色澤,還指魚身的色澤能夠保持多長的時間。
鮪魚的色澤本身就會因時間的流逝而變暗,最終變成深棕色。
鮪魚的其中一大樂趣是當其被放置在料理桌時,無意間給人造成眼前一亮的那抹鮮紅色。
這樣好的色澤是只有通過單鉤捕魚跟延繩捕魚法等捕獲到的鮪魚才有的特征。
相反,定置網以及圍網等使用漁網捕獲的鮪魚,色澤不能長時間保持且味道容易變質。

決定鮪魚質量的要素-②味道

鮪魚跟鰹魚和鯖魚相同,都是在海面表層通過高速游泳進行移動的迴游性魚類。
為適應高速游泳的鮪魚需要強大的肌肉力量做支撐,因此鮪魚必須進行全身血液循環以達到肌肉活躍。因此也可以說鮪魚是一種由血液凝結而成的魚類。
可是,在還未捕獲時,身體會因劇烈抖動而造成鮪魚肌肉的溫度上升,使得其肌肉中的蛋白質會與魚體中的氧氣急速地發生反應而變性。
由此會導致魚身變質(魚身顏色發生變化)以及散發出酸臭味。
換句話說,就是要注重將魚身從船上卸下來時盡可能不要給其造成壓力,然後迅速地去除其內臟,最後迅速地用冰塊將魚身全體進行冷凍。如果這其中某個步驟稍有延遲,那麼就會造成魚身味道變臭。
經過適當處理的鮪魚在放入口中之時,帶有絲絲酸味的獨特芳香會在口中擴散開來。其香味的餘韻很長,甚至與醋飯裡的酸味相得映彰一起蔓延至鼻子。
這是只有最高級的生鮪魚才能讓人品嘗到的極致味道。

決定鮪魚質量的要素-③口感

決定口感的因素在於鮪魚的魚脂層比例。
尤其是在冬天,鮪魚的大脂橫斷面會變成像日本牛肋排的雪花肉紋路。
特別是高品質的鮪魚有著熔點低的脂肪肉,即使碰到人體肌膚也會開始融化。
這就是為什麼拘泥於醋飯和鮪魚一體感的壽司職人會徹底堅持將「醋飯的溫度做得與人體肌膚的溫度相同」的原因。
嚴格來說,重点是好的鮪魚並不能從「單看魚脂」來做判斷。
比如說,水產養殖的鮪魚因被餵食高蛋白質的餌料培育而成,因此不論哪個季節都能養殖出豐厚魚脂的鮪魚。
不過,這種魚脂的質量與天然形成的魚脂口感對比的話,並不會讓人想「再吃兩個或者三個的衝動」。
相比之下,天然而成的黑鮪魚魚脂無論哪個部位都非常細膩,含在口裡也不會很快就融化掉,因此會想讓人不假思索地喊上「再來一份」。
這就是天然魚的深奧之道。

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guest

Just for knowledge-wise, are you happen to know which restaurant is able to secure the harakami part?

4 个月 ago

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guest

Arai is one. In many shops harakami is saved for regulars.

4 个月 ago
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Leo Saito

chief editor, TokyoTableTrip

Kiyota, Hatsune, Sawada, Saito, Arai, Inomata, Namba, Jiro, Harutaka and Ichikawa.

大约 2 个月 ago

guest

Saito-san, can i ask whether there is any way to differentiate between farmed tuna and wild tuna?

5 个月 ago

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Leo Saito

chief editor, TokyoTableTrip

The difference between wild and farmed tuna is the presence or absence of a fresh sour taste and aroma in akami, and the persistence of fat in toro.

4 个月 ago

guest

Saito-san,

What Sushi restaurants in Tokyo would you say serve the highest quality tuna, with an omakase price of ~¥20-25,000?

5 个月 ago

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guest

For really great maguro, I can't think of anything in the ¥20-25,000 range. Lunch at Sawada (¥28,000) or dinner at Inomata (¥30,000) are the 2 least expensive options that offer really great maguro, IMO.

5 个月 ago
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Leo Saito

chief editor, TokyoTableTrip

Lunch at Sawada would be the best choice.

5 个月 ago

ChuToroZuke

Thank you for this insightful article Saito san, even I learned quite a few new things!

It seems that even with each of the different sections of the cuts there may be subsections that are rare, or if prepped correctly, also super delicious. I can't recall where but I may have had a piece that was supposed to be the intersection of chutoro and otoro that was very obscure.

If it can be explained in a brief paragraph, what are the differences between the philosophies and approaches of the more well known tuna vendors (e.g. Yamayuki, Ishiji, Fujita etc) and what makes some chefs choose some over the other? Are there seasons where certain bluefin from specific regions are better (and if so when)? e.g. sometimes instead of Oma or Minmaya, I see Maizuru (Kyoto) or Funkawan (Hokkaido), but even that is dependent on the geographic location of the restaurant and what they can source..

If some restaurants took upwards ten years to be able to get harakami, then where were the harakami being sold to previously?

5 个月 ago

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Leo Saito

chief editor, TokyoTableTrip

Apparently, tuna born off the Philippine coast split into routes in the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan as they travel north past the Japanese islands and eventually join back again in the Tsugaru Strait.
Tuna traveling in the Pacific Ocean are caught near Kochi(高知) during the spring; near the Izu Peninsula(伊豆) and Choshi(銚子), Chiba during the summer; near Shiogama(塩釜), Miyagi(宮城) during the autumn; and near Oma(大間) and Funka Bay(噴火湾), Hokkaido during the winter.
Tuna traveling in the Sea of Japan are caught near Iki(壱岐), Nagasaki and Hagi(萩), Yamaguchi during the spring; near Tottori(鳥取) and Sado(佐渡), Niigata during the summer; near Fukaura(深浦), Miyagi during the autumn; and near Minmaya(三厩) and Matumae(松前), Hokkaido during the winter.
Therefore, the locality of bluefin tuna served at sushi restaurants varies according to the above.

5 个月 ago
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guest

Saito-san, this really provides alot of insight. Thanks for it!

5 个月 ago
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Leo Saito

chief editor, TokyoTableTrip

You're welcome(^^)!

5 个月 ago
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ChuToroZuke

Thank you so much Saito san, that is fascinating to learn. And it just so happens that each of the catch locations have their own unique nutrient rich ecosystems of many delicious varieties of seafood we and the tunas both love!

5 个月 ago

localtaste

A sushi lover could elevate the level of the enjoyment of his or her tuna with such insightful info. My memorable maguro experience was at Inomata, Kurosaki, Saito (Then Shun’s side), Obana, Tenzushi, and Suzue.

5 个月 ago

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Shi

Indeed this was quite the learning experience for me and I sincerely appreciate the insights!

5 个月 ago

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